COMPLETED

 

Exploration of Integrated Geophysical Methods for 

Defining Pollution Zones in Geological Formations

(GeoMonitor)

 

LIFE95/GR/A11/GR/1048/KRI

  University of Patras

Seismological Laboratory

 

 

This Life project aims at integrating various geophysical exploration methodologies to be used for studying pollution prone geological formation and subterranean pollution with emphasis to the contamination of coastal aquifers by saline water intrusion and its minimization by automatically controlling nearby pumping stations. 

 

Technical description

 

The methodology of the project is based on the combined use of various geophysical surveying techniques such as high resolution shallow seismic reflection,  electrokinetic surveying and geoelectric exploration, in order to delineate the underground distribution of pollutant prone geological formations.

 

In particular, it is based on the study of the electrical and seismic properties of geological formations and their relation to the space-time evolution of subterranean  pollution plumes.

 

The aforementioned methodologies have been tested in the local authorities of Guves, Malia, Xersonissos and Anopolis  in Crete.

 

The most important of the problems  solved, concerns the salinization of coastal aquifer and the subsequent destruction of coastal crops. The applicability of the developed methodologies reaches a variety of fields such as: the rapid delineation of pollutant prone geological features, the assessment  of saline intrusion hazard of coastal aquifers and  the proper selection of  waste disposal sites.

 

The main project’s achievements were: 1)The development of prototype software for the assessment of pollution hazard, 2)The development of prototype hardware for the detection of saline water intrusion and 3) Τhe development of hardware and software for the automatic monitoring and control of the saline intrusion by optimizing the pumping rates of nearby irrigation wells.

 

Table : Description of project activities

WP

Duration

Description

COMPLETED

COMPLETED

 

PHASE 1

 

WITH DELAY

1.1

4/96 – 9/96

Comparison of merits and weaknesses of the various methodologies and selection of the procedural framework, ensuring the most reliable results.

 

 

1.2

7/96 – 1/97

Selection and purchase of new equipment and upgrading of existing ones.

 

 

1.3

7/96 – 1/97

Development of a database application for the storage, processing and retrieval of the monitoring process results.

 

 

1.4

7/96 – 1/97

Development of tools for the remote operation of the monitoring process and the control of well pumping to prevent aquifer salinization.

 

 

1.5

9/96 – 11/96

Selection of test sites

 

 

1.6

11/96 - 1/97

Inegration of SW and HW products for the execution of the monitoring experiments

 

 

1.7

12/96-5/97

Study of test site geophysical characteristics

 

 

                                                 PHASE 2

 

 

2.1

6/97-2/98

Installation of monitoring instrumentation

 

 

2.2

8/97-2/98

Preliminary monitoring of saline intrusion

 

 

2.3

8/97-12/97

Preliminary monitoring of  pollutant-prone zones in upper geological layers

 

 

2.4

11/97-1/98

Assessment of methodological weakness and recommendations for refinements

 

 

                                                  PHASE 3

 

 

3.1

2/98-8/98

Refinement & Improvement of Geophysical monitoring framework

 

 

3.2

8/98-3/99

Upgrading of monitoring instrumentation

 

 

                                                   PHASE 4

 

 

4.1

4/99-6/99

Installation of upgraded instrumentation

 

 

4.2

4/99-11/99

Monitoring of saline intrusion and control  of pumping rates

 

 

4.3

8/98è

Dissemination activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

PART A: DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES

 

INTRODUCTION

 

PHASE 1

1.1 SELECTION OF THE PROCEDURAL FRAMEWORK- ADOPTED METHODS

1.2  PURCHASE OF NEW EQUIPMENT AND UPGRADING OF EXISTING ONES.

          1.2.1 Upgrade of existing equipment

1.2.2 Upgrade of Lab's software library

1.2.3 Purchase of new equipment

1.3 DEVELOMPENT OF A DATABASE APPLICATION FOR THE STORAGE, PROCESSING AND RETRIEVAL OF THE MONITORING PROCESS RESULTS

1.4 DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS FOR THE REMOTE OPERATION OF THE MONITORING PROCESS AND THE CONTROL OF WELL PUMPING TO PREVENT AQUIFER SALINIZATION

 

1.4.1            General System description       

 

1.4.2.            System version 1.0 description

1.4.2.1  Description of system's H/w.             

            1.4.2.1.a            Local Station

                                                Unit A (Processing System).

                                                Unit B ((A/D Converter).

                                                Unit C (Digital I/O).

                                                Unit D (Hydrotron).

                                                Unit E (Radiolink Control).

                                                Unit F (Radiolink Network).

                        1.4.2.1.b            Description of Hydrotron System.

                                                Power Supply Interface & Decoder Control Subunit.

PS Control Board(Switching PS Version) Subunit.

                                                Switching Power Supplies Subunit.

                                                Reversing Polarity Subunit.

The Switching Box and Condition Subunit

                        1.4.2.1.c          Radio Control of Pumping Stations.

 

1.5 SELECTION OF SITES

1.5.1 Region Gouves

1.5.2 Region Anopolis

1.5.3 Region Xersonisos

1.5.4 Region Malia

 

1.6 INTEGRATION OF SW & HW PRODUCTS FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE MONITORING EXPERIMENTS

1.6.1            Description of system's S/w.

1.6.1.1 Low-Level Drivers

1.6.1.2  Software of Local Stations.

1.6.1.3  Software of Radiolink Control.

1.6.1.4  Software of  Control Processing System

1.6.1.5  Software of Radiolink Network

1.7 STUDY OF TEST SITE GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

1.7.1 The Guves Pilot site

1.7.1.1 Hydrochemical features of groundwater

1.7.1.2 The expanded Durov diagram

1.7.1.3 Ionic ratios

1.7.1.4 The chloride isoline map

1.7.2 Geophysical investigation at Guves pilot  site

1.7.3 Geophysical investigations at Hersonissos pilot site

1.7.4 Geophysical investigations at Anopolis pilot site

PHASE 2

2.1 Installation of monitoring instrumentation

2.2 Preliminary monitoring of saline intrusion hazard

2.3 Preliminary monitoring of pollutant prone zones in upper geological layers

2.3.1 The Ebaros test site

2.3.1.1 Geology

2.3.1.2 Geophysical investigations

2.3.1.3 Seismic measurements

2.3.1.3.a Processing of the seismic reflection data

2.3.1.3.b The final model

2.3.1.4 Electrokinetic investigations

 

 

2.4 Assessment of methodological weakness and recommendations for refinements

PHASE 3

3.1 REFINEMENT & IMPROVEMENT  OF GEOPHYSICAL MONITORING NETWORK

3.1.1            System version 1.1 description

3.1.1.1            System's version 1.0 disadvantages.

3.1.1.2            Changes at version 1.1 H/W.

3.1.1.2.a            Power Supply Control Board (DC PS Version)

3.1.1.2.b            Power Supply Unit.

3.1.1.2.c            Current Limiting Unit.

3.1.1.3 Changes at version 1.1 S/W.

 

 

3.2 UPGRADING OF MONITORING INSTRUMENTATION

 

3.2.1 System final version (Version 2)

                        3.2.1.1 Description of system's H/W              

                                    3.2.1.1.a Unit A (Processing System).

                                    3.2.1.1.b Unit B (Digital I/O).

                                    3.2.1.1.c Unit C (Radiolink Control).

                                    3.2.1.1.d Unit D (Sensors).

3.2.1.2 Description of system’s S/W

3.2.1.2.a Software of Radiolink Network

3.2.1.2.b Processing Software

3.2.1.2.c Software of Radiolink Control

PHASE 4

4.1 Installation of upgraded instrumentation

4.2 Monitoring of saline intrusion  and control of pumping rates

 

PART B: ASSESSEMENT

B.1 NATURE OF THE PROJECT AND ITS EUROPEAN DIMENSION

B.2 STATE OF THE ART OF EXISTING GEOPHYSICAL METHODOLOGIES FOR GROUNDWATER POLLUTION MONITORING AND CONTROL

B.3 METHODS AND MAIN ACTIVITIES OR PHASES OF THE PROJECT

B.4 PROJECT INOVATION

B.5 MULTIPLICATIVE POTENTIAL AND APPLICATION TO OTHER REGIONS AND PROBLEMS

B.6 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT’S ACHIVEMENTS

B.7 FINANCIAL BENEFITS

B.8 DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS

 

APPENDIXES

APPENDIX A: DEVELOPED SOFTWARE

A.1 Version 1.0 S/W Layout & sample GUI’s screens & diagrams

A.1.1 Version 1.0 S/W Layout

A.1.2 Version 1.0 sample GUI’s screens  & diagrams

A.2 Version 1.1 S/W Layout

A.3 Final version (Version 2.0) S/W layout & sample GUI’s screens

A.3.1 Final version S/W layout

A.3.2 Sample GUI’s screens & diagrams

A.4 Electronic Circuits developed for GeoMonitor

A.5 Printed Board Circuits developed for GeoMonitor

A.6 Electronic Modules developed for Geomonitor